ALLEN GLACIER AND OTHER ICE TONGUES OF THE COPPER RIVER
THE CANTON AND ITS GLACIERS
The canyon by which the Copper River crosses the Chugach Range has a length of 100 miles. Two-thirds of this is north of Allen Glacier. In this portion its width varies from one to three miles. The valley walls rise to heights of 5000 to 7000 feet. Two large rivers join the Copper about half way through this canyon section, Bremner River coming in from the east and Tasnuna River from the west. These tributary valleys are of greater width than the trunk valley, but Copper River is of much greater volume than either of its affluents. In the Copper River valley south of the Bremner and Tasnuna rivers are Allen, Heney and several smaller glaciers. North of them the valley walla have a number of much smaller ice tongues. Allen Glacier, the first to be described in this chapter (Fig. 68), is immediately north of and close to Miles Glacier (Map 9, in pocket).
Name of Glacier. _ No name was given this glacier by any of the Russian explorers or by Allen, who recognized it as an ice tongue in 1885, but who named the portion of Copper River directly east of it Baird Canyon.1 Hayes applied no name to the glacier in 1891, nor did Abercrombie in 1898, and it does not appear on the 1898 map by Mahlo. In 1900 Witherspoon applied the same name to it as the canyon,2 and we have used his map and this name in our preliminary description.8 There are three other Baird Glaciers in Alaska, however, one on White Pass, named by Schwatka in 1883 two years before Allen named Baird Canyon, the second in southeastern Alaska on Frederick Sound, named by Thomas in 1887, and the third east of Valdez, named by Schrader in 1898. A new name has, therefore, been declared necessary by the U. S. Geographic Board. It is proposed to use Allen,4 after the intrepid explorer who was one of the first to visit it, at the time of his wonderful journey across Alaska in 1885.
General Description. Allen Glacier comes from unexplored snowfields in the Chugach Mountains west of Copper River, having a known length of over 5 miles, although undoubtedly it is longer, probably at least 15 or 20 miles in all. Its valley portion is a mile and three quarters wide. It has clear ice in its valley and there are few moraines on its surface. It flows eastward into the Copper River valley, expanding into a bulb five miles
f- Expedition to the Copper, Tanana, and Koyukuk Rivera, Washington, 1887, Map 2; Narratives of Explorations in Alaska, Washington, 1000, map facing p. 434.
* House t>oc. 546, 66th Congress, 2nd Session, 1900, PI. II; Bull. 374, U. S. Geol, Survey, 1000, Fl. I.
* Tarr, R. S. and Martin, Lawrence, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. THTT, 1910, map on p. 25. < This is Major Henry T. Allen, 8th Cavalry, United States Army.